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Vaginal bleeding causes

Every healthy woman experience monthly normal vaginal bleeding during regular menstruation – it occurs every 21-35 days and lasts 3-7 days. It is a period of monthly uterus lining shedding, marking the start of a new menstrual cycle. Menstrual cycles tend to be longer during puberty and/or menopause. But sometimes women suffer from intensive unpredictable irregular dysfunctional uterine bleeding which can be disturbing and threatening. Vaginal bleeding causes could be different but in all cases hormonal dysfunction is involved.

Healthy women have pretty complicated monthly hormonal cycles when female hormones rise and fall at specific periods. Estrogen and progesterone are two main female hormones that play crucial role in menstrual cycle regulations and in insuring ovulation (time when ovaries release the fertile egg). Main causes of abnormal dysfunctional uterine bleeding based on abnormal not rhythmic production of female hormones.

On average, normal menstrual periods occur every 28 days (from 21 to 45 days).

Normal duration of menstruation (monthly vaginal bleeding) is 4-7 days.

Menopause is defined as the absence of menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months.

Vaginal bleeding causes

Vaginal bleeding causes

Vaginal bleeding causes

Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy:

  • Pregnancy abnormalities,
  • Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage),
  • Ectopic pregnancy.

Vaginal bleeding during hormonal dysfunctions:

  • Puberty or menopause “hormonal storms”,
  • Adenomyosis,
  • Endometrial hyperplasia,
  • PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome),
  • Thyroid dysfunctions (hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism).

Vaginal bleeding during contraception:

  • Intrauterine device (IUD),
  • Birth control pills,
  • Hormonal contraception (Depo Provera).

Vaginal bleeding and benign tumors:

Vaginal bleeding and cancer:

  • Endometrial cancer,
  • Cervical cancer,
  • Vaginal cancer,
  • Ovarian cancer,
  • Uterine sarcoma.

Vaginal bleeding during infections and inflammation (Chlamydia, gonorrhea or other infections):

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID),
  • Cervicitis,
  • Endometritis,
  • Vaginitis.

Vaginal bleeding during general diseases:

  • Celiac disease,
  • Severe general systemic disease (connected to kidney or liver),
  • Thrombocytopenia,
  • Blood clotting disorders (hemophilia and von Willebrand disease).

Vaginal bleeding trauma related:

  • Forgotten (“lost”) tampon,
  • Sexual abuse,
  • Surgery procedures with complications.

Vaginal bleeding diagnosis and treatment see on next page.


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