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Polyps are abnormal growths of tissue that can be found in any organ that has blood vessels. Most commonly polyps in women found on cervix (neck of the womb) and in uterus (on endometrium – internal lining of the womb). The majority of polyps are noncancerous (benign). At the same time, it should be noted that because of abnormal cell growth, some polyps eventually become cancerous (malignant).

Cervical polyps

Cervical polyps are finger-like growths on the cervical canal (the neck of the uterus) – they are common in women after 20 (especially in women after childbirth). Most women have only one polyp, but sometimes they could have two or three cervical overgrowth. Main causes of cervical polyp are not completely known but more often they occur in women:

  • with hyperestogenemia – increased levels of female hormone estrogens;
  • during or after cervical and vaginal inflammations;
  • after cervical and vaginal infections;
  • with clogged blood vessels in the cervix.

In many cases cervical polyp rarely cause symptoms. Cervical polyp symptoms include:

  • Intensive menstrual periods,
  • Irregular vaginal bleeding or bloody discharge (especially after intercourse or douching),
  • Vaginal discharge – white or yellow or mucus (sometimes with foul smell).

Cervical polyp can be easily diagnosed by doctor who can see smooth, red or purple, fingerlike growths on the cervix.

Cervical polyp should be removed – the procedure called “polypectomy”. It is simple procedure which can be performed in outpatient clinic. Overgrowth tissue should be examined for signs of cancer after removal.

Uterine polyps

Uterine polyps (endometrial polyp) are growths that occur in the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus) – it is actually the overgrowth of endometrial tissue. Uterine polyps are attached to the endometrium by a thin stalk or a broad base and extend inward into the uterus.

Uterine polyp can have different forms and sizes – round or oval, small multiple or big (up to few centimeters. In most cases uterine polyp is non-cancerous (benign).

Uterine polyp clear causes are not known but it was noted that more often uterine polyp appear during hyperestrogenia (increased levels of estrogen).

Uterine polyp is commonly appeared in women after 40 (often during menopause), in overweight or obese women, in women with increased blood pressure (hypertension) and in women during anticancer treatment with tamoxifen (breast cancer cases).

Uterine polyp usually trigger several typical symptoms including:

Cervical and uterine polyps

Diagnostic tests include the following:

  • Transvaginal ultrasound,
  • Sonohysterography,
  • Hysteroscopy,
  • Endometrial biopsy.

Uterine polyp treatment should be done by qualified professionals which include several medical and surgical methods.

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